Earth Day! Clean up the Plastic!

Ocean waters are getting clogged with plastic. Considering the vastness of our oceans, the thought of ocean waters full of plastic, endangering fish and wildlife, is almost incomprehensible, but there is abundant photographic evidence showing that it is happening and it’s worse than we could imagine. The northern Pacific Ocean, from the west coast of the U.S. and Canada, all the way to Asia, is sometimes referred to as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

Unfortunately, that’s just the tip of the proverbial iceberg. Plastic pollution is everywhere and, unfortunately, it seems that many people just don’t give a darn.

Chances are that every time you leave home and drive down a street you’ll find some plastic litter. It might be a water bottle or soft drink bottle. It might be a grocery bag. It might be an old toy, or the plastic bubble packaging the toy came in, not to mention the plastic bag in which someone carried it home from the store.

The synthetic fiber clothes you wear, when washed, shed microscopic plastic fibers that end up in our waters, often in the water that comes out of your household faucets.

The proliferation of plastic waste and the resulting environmental damage is the theme of this year’s Earth Day, which takes place this Sunday, April 22, the 48th anniversary of the first Earth Day on April 22, 1970.

The first Earth Day was the brainchild of the late Wisconsin Senator, Gaylord Nelson, and began as a national “teach-in” to educate students on university campuses on environmental issues. That first Earth Day, and subsequent action, led to passage of environmental legislation, such as the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Endangered Species Act.

Since then, Earth Day has become an international event, mobilizing people around the world to get active in doing something about environmental problems. Earth Day organizers call it the largest secular observance in the world, observed by over a billion people annually.

Obviously, it’s hard for an individual or a family to make a significant difference in a worldwide problem, though that’s where we have to start.

A quick and easy thing to do is to cut down on the amount of plastics that we use and then throw away. For example, don’t buy bottled water. Bottled water is a scam. There is no reason for most people, barring some places where municipal water supplies are compromised, to buy bottled water. If you’re going on an outing and want water, take a steel or aluminum reusable water bottle and fill it up from your faucet.

Avoid use of single-use plastic bags, the plastic bags from grocery stores and big box retailers. Take your own reusable shopping bags. If you do have plastic shopping bags, take them back to the grocery store or big box store for recycling. Tell local and state lawmakers to push for legislation to ban plastic shopping bags. The State of California banned plastic bags two years ago, and over 200 counties and municipalities across the U.S. have banned plastic shopping bags.

This is too obvious, but all too hard to make happen, but don’t litter. That means don’t litter, and you tell your friends and family to not litter. If you’re on your way home from a fast food place, don’t throw your garbage on the streets. Dispose of things properly. If you’re out for a walk, take a bag along with you and pick up those aluminum cans and plastic bottles that are seemingly everywhere.

Recycle your plastics and other recyclable waste. Unfortunately, here in Butte, this is going to be a challenge now that AWARE Inc., is getting out of the recycling business. This will be a serious challenge for Butte-Silver Bow, to develop a means to get all that plastic waste off our streets and out of our city landfill.

There are lots more tips for dealing with the plastics crisis from Earth Day organizers. They’re on the web at www.earthday.org.

Alas, the challenges are greater than the helpful tips, but that’s nothing new.

First Flyfishing of the Year – Must be Spring!

The beautiful Big Hole River at the end of March.

Spring is where you find it, even when it’s temporary.

Everything about the spring of 2018 is behind schedule. It was the middle of March before I saw any sign of emerging tulips or garlic, and after St. Patrick’s Day when I first heard robins calling their territorial claims in my neighborhood.

When March comes in like a lion it’s supposed to go out like a lamb. This year, March came in and went out like a lion, and April started on a wintry note as well.

Still, there are occasional peeks at what spring might be, and I found one of those momentary glimpses on the next to last day of March. The weather forecast called for strong winds, but relatively mild temperatures, so I declared it to be spring for a day and went fishing.

It had been a long time since my last fishing outing. Sometime in late September I put my flyrods away for the duration, as chasing grouse and/or pheasants would be my top priority for the fleeting autumn season.

After the end of the hunting seasons my outdoor adventures turned to skiing and as a lot of skiers will confirm, this cold, snowy winter became an absolutely fantastic skiing season. I had enough trips to Discovery to make me regret I didn’t buy a season pass a year ago. The snow kept coming and the skiing held up to the end. In most years, by late March, bare spots start showing up on sunny slopes but not this year.

Still, after my last ski outing I ran my truck through a car wash and declared it spring.

The Big Hole River, the trout stream I call my “home water,” is a lot different in early spring than it is in mid-summer. There just isn’t much going on in the public access spots, especially compared to all the traffic of floaters, guides and shuttles, and anglers of all ages looking for places to fish.

At the end of March, the river is just starting to wake up. The ice in the lower Big Hole is out, though there are still big slabs of shelf ice on the edges of the river, slowly melting on those rare warm days. They’ll probably stay in place until high water flushes them away in the first good surge of runoff.

Aside from the murmur of the water in the riffles, it’s relatively quiet. Some robins are calling, but if there were ducks and geese in the vicinity they were abnormally quiet.

My black Labrador retriever, Kiri, is ecstatic about the outing, and she joyfully splashes through the shallows and swimming in the middle of the river. A dog charging through the riffles probably isn’t good for fishing, but it’s hard to convince her that she would be happier sitting by me along the shoreline. Besides, if she isn’t churning the river waters, she’d probably be back in the brush looking for things she shouldn’t have, and in fact, on one of her excursions she came back with a deer leg. She thought it was a great chew toy and didn’t understand why I took it away from her.

My expectations for my first fishing outings are realistically low. The water is ice cold and there isn’t any insect activity happening to make the fish more active. So, the lack of fish on this particular fishing outing doesn’t particularly bother me. In coming weeks, as the water warms, I know I’ll catch my share of trout.

There’s a huge snowpack in the mountains this spring. It’s going to be interesting to see how all that ice and snow will come down to the rivers. We might hope for a slow and gradual warm-up that will keep that snowpack in the high country until mid-summer, but I don’t have a crystal ball.

I do know, as Kiri and I shared a sandwich in the relatively warm spring sunshine, we have the satisfaction that we’ve mostly made it through winter and life is good.

The Latest on Aquatic Invasives

Zebra mussels on a southern Minnesota river. We don’t want them in Montana!

Aquatic invasive species—the subsurface threat to Montana’s waters, including our world famous fisheries and water-based recreation, was the theme of last month’s membership meeting of the George Grant Chapter of Trout Unlimited.

The threat of aquatic invasives has a lot of ramifications, such as the money needed to deal with invasive species, as well as damage to ecosystems, damage to fisheries and the way we do things in the outdoors.

Nicky Oullet, reporter for Montana Public Radio

Nicky Ouellet, the Flathead reporter for Montana Public Radio, had a special assignment to research aquatic invasives, particularly quagga and zebra mussels, and their effects. St. Paul, Minnesota, for example, is spending $150,000 yearly dealing with mussels in the lake where the city gets municipal water. Part of this includes daily scraping of filter screens to get rid of immature mussels that attach themselves to the screens.

People with lakeside property sometimes find that mussels have taken over their shorelines, and she interviewed a property owner who hauls out truckloads of mussels several times a year from his shoreline.

The mussels are native to Russia and came to the Great Lakes in ballast water of ships. The mussels apparently aren’t a problem in Russia, as they have their own set of predators in native waters. Once in the U.S., mussels often hitchhike on boats and boat trailers, as well as drifting downstream in river systems.

Once established, controls are difficult and expensive, including manual removal, such as what St. Paul does, along with some chemicals that have promise. The best strategy, however, is to avoid getting them in the first place.

Kate Wilson is an invasive species specialist for the Montana Department of Natural Resources, and recently started working in Montana after previous stints in Idaho, Florida, and Alberta, and discussed the State’s efforts.

Kate Wilson, aquatic invasives specialist, Montana DNRC

Invasive species became a critical issue in Montana a couple years ago when DNA evidence of invasive mussels was discovered in Canyon Ferry Reservoir and the Tiber Reservoir, the north central impoundment on the Marias River. Last year, the Legislature approved a surcharge on Montana fishing licenses to raise money for invasive species prevention.

The principal strategy is to inspect all boats and other watercraft when entering the state, as well as other inspections. People transporting watercraft from east to west of the Continental Divide must pass inspection before launching in western Montana waters. In 2017, inspectors found 17 boats coming into Montana that were carrying invasives.

Invasive mussels have become a huge problem in the Colorado river system in southwestern states, probably from snowbirds from Midwest and eastern states bringing mussels along with their boats.

Anglers can, just by themselves, spread invasives, and the best strategy is to thoroughly clean fishing gear such as waders and wading boots, especially felt-soled waders and boots. Yellowstone National Park recently announced a ban on felt-soled waders. Glacier National Park and the Blackfeet and Salish-Kootenai Nations already prohibit felt-soled waders.

An ongoing strategy is to educate boaters and floaters to clean, drain and dry boats when leaving a body of water. This means pulling drain plugs, wiping down boat hulls, removing any stray vegetation that’s clinging to boats or trailers.

If there’s some good news about invasives it’s that in spite of DNA evidence of invasive mussels in Canyon Ferry and Tiber reservoirs, there have been no findings of actual mussels.

While the bulk of attention has been directed toward quagga and zebra mussels, there are many other types of invasives that are problems. Some are invasive plants, such as Eurasian watermilfoil, an aquatic plant introduced for aquarium use, and later got introduced into other waters.

Then, of course, we have the infamous bucket biologists who intentionally move fish or other aquatic critters, such as crayfish, and stock them in new waters. Even common goldfish, members of the carp family, are a common problem.

In summary, aquatic invasives are a clear and present danger and anybody fishing or recreating on Montana waters needs to be careful and alert to avoid spreading non-native fish, plants, mussels, and other nuisances into our precious waters.

Basecamp Butte – Business Growth and the Outdoors

Southwest Montana’s public lands and waters (here, the Big Hole River) are a basis for business investment.

 

“This is the richest place on earth.” Rachel Vandevoort, Montana Governor’s Office of Outdoor Recreation.

Here in Butte we often boast about Butte being “The richest hill on earth,” a tribute to the rich and diverse mineral resources that supported the development of what was for many years the biggest city between Minneapolis and Seattle, helped wire the world for electricity and helped win two world wars.

Obviously, for residents of Butte, we are well aware of the scars left from a century and a half (and counting) of mining, not to mention the ecological issues, not least of which is the Berkeley Pit.

Yet, you get to a vantage point and look around and what do you see?

Unless you’re looking directly at the mining scars, what we see could be described as one of the most spectacular views anywhere. We’re surrounded in all directions by snow-capped mountains and (soon) green valleys. Travel for an hour in most any direction and we can find world-class trout streams, big game hunting, great skiing, hiking, camping, mountain biking, rock climbing, motorized recreation, and the list keeps going on.

Rachel Vandevoort, whom I quoted above, grew up in the Flathead and went to the University of Montana in Missoula, and then got acquainted with the outdoor recreation in the Butte area, and fell in love with our opportunities. Now, she’s heading up a new function in the governor’s office, promoting outdoor recreation and outdoors-oriented business.

Still, when national magazines run stories about great outdoor living towns, we rarely get mentioned. That’s good and bad. It’s not all bad living in an outdoor recreation paradise that’s also one of Montana’s better kept secrets.

But, being a secret means we’re losing out on a lot of business. On the flip side there’s a lot of unrealized potential for outdoor-related business growth in our area.

That was the theme of the Butte Outdoor Sector Summit, a conference held a couple weeks ago, sponsored by the Butte Local Development Corporation. You’ve probably seen some coverage of this in other outlets, but I’m sure that every attendee came away from with a different take.

A continuing theme in the conference was the importance of public lands, particularly federal public lands, in our area. Public lands mean economic advantages, as locally accessible federal public lands draw people and that translates to economic development.

Part of the picture is that people come to areas like this and fall in love with all the fun stuff, and then realize that if they want to be here they’ll need a way to make a living. That often means starting a business. In short, the abundance of outdoor recreation on public lands leads to entrepreneurial activity.

A panel of business owners, including a couple people from Bozeman, also emphasized that easy access to the outdoors is a definite plus in recruiting employees.

BasecampButte, a new pathway to our great outdoors.

A significant part of the conference, though other presentations running overtime almost made it an afterthought, was an announcement that the BLDC is developing a one-stop internet site as a gateway to Butte’s outdoors. Basecamp Butte will be the name of the website.

On the topic of development and economic growth, there is always the issue of how much and how many. Bozeman, our neighbor to the east, is a case in point. Bozeman has mushroomed the last 30 years and Gallatin County now has an estimated population of 105,000.

Journalist Todd Wilkinson, writing in the September 2017 Mountain Journal, cited projections that, assuming 3 percent growth, Bozeman would be the size of Salt Lake City (not counting suburbs) by 2041, and by 2065, have 420,000 people, the size of Minneapolis (excluding St. Paul and suburbs). The scary thing is that a growth rate of 3 percent understates the actual growth rate.

There are probably some business promoters and boosters who would cheer those projections. I suspect that people who love the outdoors would call that a worst-case scenario.

Personally, I’ve long felt that Bozeman’s urban sprawl is already a worst-case scenario.

Firearms Discussions

Thanks to Cindy Sanderson for her thoughtful and detailed critique of my Butte Weekly column of February 21. I’d like to respond.

On the issue of a Washington Post columnist suggesting, “Don’t vote for Republicans,” Ms. Sanderson says that President Obama had a super-majority in Congress and failed to pass any gun control legislation.

She is partly correct. Obama had a Democratic majority in both houses of Congress during his first two years in office, and yes, that was how we got the Affordable Care Act enacted, without a single Republican vote.

After the push to get the ACA enacted there probably wasn’t any political juice left for gun control legislation. If she wishes to criticize Obama, however, she has a point.

After the 2010 elections, Democrats did not control the House of Representatives and after 2014, didn’t control the Senate, and any gun control legislation never had a committee hearing, much less any votes.

Ms. Sanderson is correct that there weren’t 18 school shootings by February.  I used the same cautious term the Washington Post used, (“incident involving a firearm in a school zone”). Incidentally, the Post later ran a story highly critical of the organization that first supplied the misleading statistic.

Regarding Ms. Sanderson’s attempt at putting school shootings “into perspective,” I don’t get much comfort that more school children are killed annually walking or riding bikes to school.

Frankly, I don’t think this recent history of people going off their meds or brooding over some slight they might have suffered, and then getting firearms and shooting up a school can somehow be put into perspective. We should be outraged when it happens. When it happens again and again, We the People should act.

I don’t know where Ms. Sanderson gets her information that there were just 146 mass shootings between 1967 and 2017. Gun Violence Archive, an organization that tracks this stuff, reports 100 mass shootings in 2014, 135 in 2015, 142 in 2016, and 154 in 2017.

Ms. Sanderson says that guns were much more easily available in years past than they are now.

Perhaps, but it’s different. I grew up in a rural area and I’d guess there wasn’t a farm that didn’t have a firearm of sorts. Most farms had a .22 rifle to deal with pests or to slaughter an animal. If there was a hunter in the family there might be a shotgun sitting in a corner. It seemed to me, and I concede this is not scientific, not many people had high power rifles. Most of the country didn’t have the deer populations we have now and most people wouldn’t have reason for a high power rifle. I didn’t know anybody with a handgun.

What’s different now? According to a CBS News/Washington Post poll in 2016, only about 35 percent of American households have a firearm, compared to around 50 percent a decade earlier. However, the number of firearms per household that have them is dramatically higher.

Ms. Sanderson writes, “Nations with strict gun control laws have substantially higher murder rates than those who do not.”  That’s a cherry orchard ripe for picking. According to Wikipedia, and information collected from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the U.S. in 2015 had a murder rate of 4.88 per 100,000 population.

Canada, our neighbor to the north, had a murder rate of 1.68. Ireland had 0.64, Norway had 0.56, United Kingdom had 0.92, France had 1.58, and Germany had 0.85.

In contrast, Uganda had a murder rate of 11.84, and South Africa had 34.27. The world’s most dangerous country is El Salvador, with a murder rate of 108.64.

Finally, she asserts that in every mass shooting since 1950, all but one occurred in areas where citizens were banned from carrying guns.

That is an arguable point. Mass shootings aren’t the acts of rational people. More often than not, the perpetrators don’t expect to survive, planning to commit suicide or “suicide by cop.” We also know the Parkland school had an armed school resource officer who cowered outside, waiting for back-up.

Still, these points underline that gun violence issues are complex and loaded with emotion. Thanks to Prof. Sanderson for continuing the discussion.

Have Patience – Spring is almost here!

Snow-choked Browning, Montana on the Blackfeet Indian Reservationn (USA Today photo)

Is anyone getting tired of winter?

Okay, don’t everybody raise your hands at once.

By most standards, this has been a long winter, going back to mid-September when we got our first snowfall of the season, finally ending what had been a long, hot and smoky summer.

At the end of October, on Halloween day, I went hunting in the afternoon. I didn’t see anything, so I came home before dark, and I decided to crank up my lawnmower to chop up leaves that had fallen after I’d cleaned up the lawn a week earlier.

The next day snow was falling and my lawn turned into a winter wonderland. Our front yard is on the north side of our house and gets no direct sunshine from November to March, so that All Saints Day snowfall is compressed under another two feet of snow.

Of course, we can complain about the snow we’ve had here in Butte, but in comparison to what has hit the Rocky Mountain Front, particularly the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, we’ve had it easy.  The sight of snowplows trying to clear drifts higher than the trucks boggles the mind.

I just talked to a friend in Choteau who said her pickup hasn’t been out of four-wheel drive all winter, except for one day in January when she was able to drive into Great Falls, and at that, another storm blew in on her way home in the evening. But, she says, “We have power and natural gas, and the wind blows the satellite dish clear, so I’m fine.” U.S. 89 has been blocked between Fairfield and Choteau a number of times, but has been cleared enough so that local stores are well supplied.

The deep snowdrifts on the Rocky Mountain Front are a grim reminder of the winter of 1886-1887, when an estimated 362,000 head of cattle died on Montana’s prairies, and effectively ended the open-range era. The lasting lesson of that winter was that ranchers need to grow hay to keep livestock through the winter. A ranch hand, with a talent for art, earned early fame with a post card with a watercolor painting depicting a starving, freezing cow facing into the wind, with wolves circling for the kill. The caption was “Waiting for a Chinook: The last of the 5,000.” That artistic cowboy was, of course, Charley Russell.

“Last of the 5,000: Waiting for a Chinook” by Charles M. Russell

When the snows finally melt, the full impact of the hard winter on the northern prairies will finally be assessed. My Choteau friend says ranchers feed cattle on ridges and other places where prairie winds blow the snow away. The cattle, however, tend to seek shelter from the storms in draws and other sheltered spots, and that’s where the deep drifts are. It’s probably going to be ugly.

While we still have abundant snow on our local landscape, we continue to gain about three minutes of daylight every day and all that solar energy is working on those snowdrifts.

Next Tuesday, March 20, the Spring Solstice will happen at 10:15 a.m. While we often think of the Solstice as the day of equal hours of daylight, it’s actually an approximation.

In fact, on St. Patrick’s Day, revelers will have 12 hours and 2 minutes of daylight for the Wearin’ o’ the green. On the 20th, Butte will have 12 hours and 12 minutes of daylight. Now that we’re back on Daylight Time, it will be light until well into the evening.

While the days are getting longer and the calendar says spring, I’m looking for other signs that really mean spring. I’m checking, daily, the flowerbed next to the house for signs of tulips or for the garlic I planted in October to emerge. I’m listening, as I go out in the morning, for the call of the first robins of the season.

The sign of spring I’m most looking forward to is my first trip to an area trout stream for some fly-fishing. When I’m in a river and feeling a fish on the end of my line I’ll know it is truly spring.

A Few Loose Bricks in NRA’s Wall?

The AR-15 rifle, or “modern sporting arm” as some prefer to call it.

The last couple weeks since the Florida school shooting have been extremely interesting. For once, the formidable brick wall protecting extreme gun policies is developing some loose bricks.

The Florida legislature is actually considering some common sense measures, such as limiting sales of rifles to people age 21 and older, as well as increased background checks. Until now, the Florida legislature was about as beholden to the National Rifle Association as could be possible, but the Republican legislature found that the pressure of face to face encounters with survivors of the high school shooting to be even more scary than threats from the NRA.

Another surprising development was the number of corporate supporters of the NRA that have decided that their support was an embarrassment and canceled things such as travel discounts to NRA members. Last week, Dick’s Sporting Goods, a chain with some 600 stores, announced that they would no longer stock AR-platform rifles, and high capacity magazines. They also announced that they would no longer sell firearms to people under age 21. Walmart took AR-rifles off their shelves several years ago, and last week announced the company would no longer sell firearms to minors.

Poor Steve Daines, our mostly invisible Republican U.S. Senator, found courage to criticize Delta Airlines for cutting his NRA member travel discount. All he had to offer the families of the dead Florida school children was thoughts and prayers, but he found courage to criticize Delta. He was scheduled to make an appearance at a Republican fundraiser in Butte this past weekend, but as of press time it was unknown as to whether he’d be brave enough to face anybody but party faithful.

The Second Amendment to our Constitution has certainly taken a lot of abuse from both defenders and critics in recent years. While the Supreme Court has ruled that there is an individual right to keep and bear arms, the first part of the one sentence Amendment, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free state…” continues to be a thorny issue in any discussion of just how far the Second Amendment can be stretched.

An interesting discussion of what the Founding Fathers had in mind comes from Saul Cornell, a history professor at Fordham University, who wrote about gun laws the Founding Fathers espoused. The article first appeared in The Conversation, an academic online journal, last October, and recently reposted in High Country News.

Gun registration is something that is consistently opposed by the NRA and other gun groups. Cornell asserts that all the colonies, except Quaker-dominated Pennsylvania, enrolled citizens, white men between the ages of 16 and 60, in state-regulated militias. The fledgling states and their militias kept track of privately owned firearms and citizens could be fined if they reported to muster without a well-maintained weapon in working order.

Cornell disputes the notion of a Constitutional right to carry arms in public. Under English common law, carrying arms was highly restricted, and that carried over to the new nation. Cornell says, “There was no right of armed travel when the Second Amendment was adopted and certainly no right to travel with concealed weapons.”

A commonly cited notion among some extremists is some right of revolution; that people need to be armed against their government. Cornell says this is “a serious misunderstanding of the role the right to bear arms played in American constitutional theory.” Cornell says that during the Revolution the Founders engaged in disarming the civilian population unless the individuals were willing to swear their loyalty to the new government. He asserts any supposed right to take up arms against the government is “absurd,” and, in fact, is defined in the Constitution as treason.

Note: there is considerable and lively discussion, pro and con, regarding Professor Cornell’s article at The Conversation website.

It remains to be seen whether Congress, particularly the Republican majority, will work up enough bravery to defy the NRA, or if they will again cave in.

After all, the classic definition of an honest politician is someone who, once bought, stays bought.

Happy New Year! It’s a new license year!

A Montana fishing and hunting license – the passport to the great outdoors.

Happy New Year!

No, don’t turn on your TV looking for a football game, and don’t set off any more firecrackers to welcome in the Year of the Dog.

No, tomorrow, March 1, is the first day of a new Montana license year, which means that when we finally get some nice weather and you feel like going fishing, you’d better get your 2018 fishing license, and while you’re at it, you’d might as well buy your upland bird and waterfowl licenses. You’ll have it done with.

I always get a bit excited when I get my licenses for another year. It’s an affirmation of life, and I’m getting to the stage where those affirmations mean more than they might have a few years back.  That piece or two of paper is a tangible sign of my intent to get out and enjoy some of the wonderful outdoor recreation opportunities we have here in Montana.

This year marks 30 years since I did my last job transfer in my career with the Federal government. My wife and I had hoped that my job would take us back to Montana, and hopefully an area with trout streams. That transfer to Butte in 1988 couldn’t have worked any better.

I think it was in March of that year that we had some mild, spring-like weather and I went out on my first outing of the year. I had to buy a non-resident fishing license that year, as I wasn’t going to skip fishing until I satisfied the 6-month residency requirement.

I found a place to fish on the Ruby River and I think I might have caught a whitefish that afternoon. Still, I had to pinch myself a couple times as I took in the reality that I was fly-fishing in Montana. It was March and I wasn’t on vacation. I live here!

That summer I had to fly to Denver for a meeting and as passengers got on board in Butte and in Bozeman I couldn’t help but notice how many of them were carrying fly rod tubes, heading home after a week or a weekend of Montana fly-fishing. I felt a little smug. I’d been fishing, too, but I’d be back before the next weekend and I could fish most every weekend, fishing a river or stream within a relatively short drive from our house.

Of course, Montana isn’t the be-all/end-all of fishing. Over the years, especially the last 20 or so years after I started a second childhood career as an outdoor writer, I’ve had the good fortune to fish in a lot of states, from Florida to Alaska. I’ve caught salmon on the west coast, monster pike in Canada, and smallmouth bass in Virginia, Minnesota and North Dakota.

Montana’s Big Hole River – my (main) home water.

Still, my home waters are here in western Montana. Here in the headwaters of the Missouri and Columbia River systems I can find about as much fishing as I can handle, and then some, and with Montana’s stream access laws, just about all of it is there and open for anyone, rich and poor alike, to step into the water and become part of Montana’s rich fishing tradition.

I don’t take it for granted. Too many people have fought and litigated and lobbied to secure and protect public access to our waters, just as others have worked just as hard to protect and improve the quality of those waters. It’s a long campaign that never ends, as people and forces that would restrict our public access or degrade our waters have deep pockets and lots of political influence.

Still, we the people find continuing affirmation that fishing and hunting are values sacred to the people of Montana, and that public access is too important to give up to anybody or anything.

So, as I go online to buy my Montana fishing and hunting licenses for another year I’ll happily spend those few dollars it costs, with gratitude for the opportunity to live here and call it home.

Mass Murder Continues. Will Change Ever Come?

The only immediate reaction from the NRA was to remove this Kimber ad which was re-tweeted from their website.

“There’s been a shooting at the Margaret Leary School.”

That was the heartbreaking shock to the entire Butte community on what had been a beautiful spring morning in April 1994. It was one of those events that sear your memory. Like the news of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, it was a moment that you remember where you were and who you were with when you got the news.

In that event, it emerged that a disturbed child, from a wildly dysfunctional family, took his father’s handgun to school that day and during recess shot and killed another child.

The news of the shooting made front-page headlines across the nation.

Fast forwarding to the present, the nation is reeling from another school shooting, this time on Valentine’s Day, with a 19-year old high school expellee shooting up a high school in Parkland, Florida, killing 17 people and injuring more, some perhaps mortally.

It’s the worst school shooting since the Sandy Hook massacre, when another mentally disturbed young man killed 21 people, including his mother. A frightening thought is that our 1994 school shooting would barely be noticed outside of Montana, considering the ongoing flood of shootings.

Unbelievably, this was the 18th incident involving a firearm in a school zone in the first 45 days of 2018. The adults and children killed in Florida bring the total of deaths due to school shootings since Sandy Hook to 138 (Washington Post). Ironically, The National Council for Home Safety and Security rated Parkland, Florida as the safest city in Florida.

Crime rates, including violent crime, in the United States have declined since the early 1990s but mass shootings have increased. Since Sandy Hook, in 1912, more than 1,600 mass shootings have occurred, and the five worst mass shootings in our history have taken place in the last decade. There were 346 mass shootings in 2017 alone. At that, mass shootings represent just 2 percent of all gun fatalities annually.

A common thread through this bloody review of mass shootings is the use of so-called assault rifles. Statistically, according to the Washington Post report, assault weapons constitute 2 percent of all firearms in the U.S., but have been used in 27 percent of mass shootings from 1999 to 2013. In shootings in Newtown, San Bernardino, Orlando, Las Vegas, Sutherland Springs, and last week in Parkland, the shooters used AR-15 semiautomatic rifles. In the Las Vegas mass shooting last fall, the gunman had legally modified several of his AR-15’s to become virtual machine guns.

Sadly, as killings continue, nothing happens.

Sure, some politicians offer “Thoughts and prayers, yada, yada yada.” Or “Now is not the time, blah, blah, blah.”

Washington Post columnist Paul Waldman, who writes The Plum Line column, writes there is one thing we, the people, can do to do something about gun violence, both mass shootings and the 30 or more other gun deaths that occur daily. It’s simple, he says, “Don’t vote for Republicans.”

He explains, “I’m sorry if you find that too partisan…But the fact is that one of our two parties has in recent years has decided that it will stop any and all efforts to address gun violence, no matter how reasonable they are and no matter how much of the public favors something like universal background checks that is supported by more than 90 percent of Americans.”

It is a fact that about half the senators and representatives in Congress get campaign contributions from the National Rifle Association. All but a tiny handful are Republicans. Waldman asks, “Isn’t the NRA the real problem? No, the NRA is made up of loathsome ghouls, but it’s also an interest group like any other. Whatever power the NRA has flows through elected officials, nearly all of whom are Republicans who have made a choice to ally themselves with the organization.”

Incidentally, the only immediate reaction to the Parkland school tragedy from the NRA was to remove a tweet from their Twitter site, re-tweeting an ad from the Kimber firearms company promoting buying guns for sweethearts on Valentine’s Day.

Great Backyard Bird Count This Weekend!

Don’t plan on seeing robins in Montana this weekend, though there will likely be some sightings.

Did your parents think that you should be a doctor or lawyer when you grew up? How about a scientist?

I can’t offer much help for a newfound desire to be a doctor or lawyer, other than study, apply for med school or law school and hope for the best, but it’s easy to become a scientist, or at least a volunteer scientist for this year’s Great Backyard Bird Count.

Since 1998, the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, in cooperation with the Audubon Society, has been recruiting volunteer scientists to go outside, or at least, especially if you have a bird feeder, look out a window, to count birds that you can see and hopefully identify. After your walk or after you get tired of looking out the window, you can log onto the internet and enter your observations, and you will have made a small but important contribution to the study of birds, and what’s happening in the world of birds.

The Great Backyard Bird Count (GBBC) takes place every Presidents Day weekend, starting on Friday, the 16th, and going through Monday, the 19th.

The GBBC is conducted in mid-February, as, in the northern hemisphere, it’s late winter, before spring migrations start in earnest. It’s a snapshot in time, capturing information about where birds are at this time of year, and possible correlations between snow cover and what birds are around.

Bird populations are dynamic; they are constantly in flux. No single scientist or team of scientists could hope to document the complex distribution and movements of so many species in such a short time.

Scientists use information from the GBBC along with other citizen-science projects, such as the Christmas Bird Count, to get the big picture about what is happening to bird populations, and the longer the information is collected, the more meaningful they become in helping scientists investigate changes in the bird world.

From that tentative start in 1998, the GBBC has grown immensely. In 2017, people from more than 100 countries submitted 180,000 checklists, identifying over 6,200 species of birds.

It’s easy to participate in the GBBC. First, if you haven’t participated previously or not since 2013, log onto the internet and go to GBBC.birdcount.org to create a free account,. You’ll create a user name and password that you’ll use to report your observations.

Second, go for a walk or look out a window for at least 15 minutes on one of the four days of the weekend.  You can do this on one day or several days, and as often as you like.

Third, go back to the internet website and click “Submit Observations,” and report what you saw.

That’s all there’s to it, and when you’re done you can pat yourself on the back and call yourself a Citizen Scientist.

Changing topics, we can’t ignore that today is Valentine’s Day, the day named in honor of an ancient Roman bishop who secretly married Roman soldiers, against the orders of the emperor. At least that’s one version.

Americans spend about $277 million on Valentine cards each year, second only to Christmas.

This is a big day for chocolate. Over a billion dollars will be spent on buying chocolate for Valentine’s Day, including some 35 million heart-shaped boxes. Also, about 110 million roses, mostly red, will be sold and delivered within the three day Valentine’s Day period.

We’ll also note that today is Ash Wednesday, the day of penitence that begins the liturgical season of Lent. This year is the first since 1945 when Ash Wednesday and Valentine’s Day have coincided.

This creates a conundrum of sorts, in that Valentine’s Day is often an occasion for taking a loved one out for a festive dinner. On the other hand, many observe Ash Wednesday as a day for fasting. According to one Roman Catholic-oriented website, if you’re looking for a bishop to give a dispensation to go ahead and have that big dinner, you’ll probably be disappointed.

Don’t expect advice from me. My supposed journalistic expertise is outdoors, not theology or romance.

Holy Waters – a Great Winter Read

Holy Waters – a good winter read, especially if you need a fishing fix.

It’s February. We now know whether the groundhog saw its shadow last Friday, and whether we’ll have six more weeks of winter or have an early spring—keeping in mind that in Montana, an early spring and six more weeks of winter amount to about the same thing.

The Super Bowl is over. As a longtime fan of the Minnesota Vikings, I don’t know whether I’m sad because the Vikes didn’t make it to the Super Bowl, or relieved that they didn’t make it and break their tie with the Buffalo Bills for Super Bowl futility. Cheer up; the next football season is just seven months away.

February can be a difficult month. The hunting seasons are mostly over, but it’s early for fly-fishing.

There is hope. Every day, we have about three more minutes of daylight than the day before. A week ago, we hit a milestone of sorts, when we had nine hours and 38 minutes of daylight, or one hour more than at the winter solstice back in December.

February can be a time for planning, and if taking a float trip on the Smith River is on your wish list, the deadline for applying for a Smith River permit is February 15. Taking a trip on the Smith River is, of course, one of Montana’s premier outdoor experiences. The only way to experience the Smith River is to apply for a permit, or get invited to join a launch by someone who got lucky and drew a permit. Of course, you could also book a trip with one of the outfitters that operate on the stream.

February is a time to read about the outdoors. A new book I’d recommend is Holy WaterFly-fishing Reveries & Remembrances, by my friend, Jerry Kustich. Jerry is a bamboo rod builder, and with Glenn Brackett, helped start Sweetgrass Rods, which this past year moved from Twin Bridges to Butte. Jerry has written three previous books about fishing, and the co-author, with his brother, Rick, of a book on fishing for Great Lakes steelhead.

Jerry Kustich, bamboo rod artist, author and, happily, a good friend.

Several years ago, when Jerry was retiring as an active partner with Sweetgrass, I stopped in at the shop in Twin Bridges, after a morning of chasing ducks, and I asked if, in retirement, he planned to write more books. He wasn’t sure, at the time, whether he had more to say, but he certainly does.

I had the opportunity to review the manuscript before the book went to press, and wrote a back cover blurb for the book, so I’m prejudiced, but I think this is his best work. As I wrote for the blurb, “This is honest and heartfelt writing in the tradition of Norman Maclean.”

Like Maclean, Jerry writes about fishing, and make no mistake, he knows a lot about the topic, but like Maclean, he writes about life and those precious and all too-fleeting relationships. As Maclean concluded A River Runs Through It, “I am haunted by waters,” Jerry writes about the nature of rivers, “One leads to another and then another. They flow on forever and forever connected, they enrich our souls and touch our spirits with mysteries that none of us can fully comprehend.”

Finally, news from the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation.

RMEF announced that their CEO, David Allen, is leaving from his post as of January 31, 2018. Nancy Holland, a member of the Board of Directors will step in as an interim CEO.

Allen served as Chief Executive Officer for nearly 11 years, and in a press release from RMEF, he points to 9 years of membership growth, conservation and preservation work on 1.8 million acres of wildlife habitat, and opened or improved public access to nearly 600,000 acres of public land.

On the other hand, under Allen’s tenure, the organization drew criticism from other conservation groups for RMEF’s stance favoring aggressive steps to control wolves, with Allen once telling the Idaho Statesman newspaper that states should “shoot wolves from the air and gas their dens.”

That’s not exactly conservation talk, and RMEF took a lot of flak for that.

Harry Selby – Professional Hunter

Harry Selby with writer Robert Ruark, ca 1953

Harry Selby, one of the last and greatest of the so-called “great white hunters’ of Africa, died peacefully at his home in Botswana on January 20, at age 92.

Not many hunting guides have long, glowing obituaries in newspapers such as the New York Times or the Washington Post. Harry Selby was a notable exception.

John Henry Selby was born in South Africa in 1925, and his family moved to Kenya when he was still a boy, and he grew up hunting and shooting to protect family crops and livestock. Young Harry became a protégé of an earlier hunting legend, Philip Hope Percival, who was an outfitter for both Theodore Roosevelt and Ernest Hemingway. In 1949, Selby joined East Africa’s foremost safari outfitter, Ker & Downey.

Selby achieved international fame after leading Robert Ruark, a famous syndicated columnist and novelist, and his family on a safari in Tanzania (or Tanganyika, as it was called then). The African safari was much different than today’s safaris, as safari meant going out for two or three months at a time, into bush country by truck and taking along enough supplies and provisions for the duration, as well as a small army of guides, trackers, cooks, porters, drivers, etc., and coping with whatever emergencies that might come up.

As the Times told it, “Selby had to be the doctor, mechanic, chauffeur, gin-rummy-and-drinking partner and universal guide, knowledgeable about mountain ranges, grassy plains, rivers, jungles, hunting laws, migratory patterns, and the Bushmen, Masai, Samburu, Dinka and Zulu tribes. He spoke three dialects of Swahili. And he improvised; if there was no firewood, he burned wildebeest dung.”

Ruark wrote several books based on his travels to Africa, Horn of the Hunter, Something of Value, and Uhuru, and these books made Selby a celebrity among professional hunters.

Over the years, Selby guided wealthy industrialists, royalty, maharajahs, and opera singers, as well as ordinary people who saved up for years to go on one these trips across the hunting lands of Africa.

Selby moved his base of operations from Kenya to Botswana following the Mau Mau revolts of the 1950s, when he worked as a tracker for the old Colonial government. It turned out to be a positive move, as he was one of the first to bring hunters to the great Okavango Delta and Kalahari Desert, and what was then an unspoiled wildlife paradise.

While Selby was first and foremost a hunter, he was among the first professional hunters to anticipate major changes in African tourism and in 1970 established the first lodge and camps for photography safaris. (Note, the old term, “white hunter,” was replaced long ago with Professional Hunter)

Selby continued to lead safaris in Africa until he retired in 2000.

There is, not surprisingly, a local connection to Harry Selby. Earlier this month the Butte community said goodbye to another legend of big game hunting, Jack Atcheson, Sr., who, from his base in Butte, Montana, established a business of booking hunting trips around the world, and in the process went on many international hunting trips.

His sons, Keith and Jack Jr., continue to operate the business, and Keith recalls his first hunting trip to Africa in 1977, with Harry’s son, Mark Selby, the professional hunter. “I got my first cape buffalo on that trip,” he recalls.

“As far as I know, my dad never hunted with Harry Selby, but we certainly booked a lot of hunting trips with him.”

Keith noted, with regret, that Mark Selby died in 2017. Harry Selby is survived by his wife, Maria Elizabeth (Miki) and daughter, Gail, and several grandchildren.

There’s no escaping the reality that attitudes about trophy hunting in Africa and other exotic locales have changed, and people who post photos from an Africa hunt on social media had better be prepared for hate mail.

Still, we can’t ignore the life and career of this renowned professional hunter who bridged the transition from traditional multi-month hunting safaris to permanent camps catering to photographers, and earned widespread respect and honors for his achievements.

Mt. Haggin WMA – A Gem with Flaws

Mt. Haggin WMA – magnificent mountain country

With hunting seasons mostly over and with a gentle snowfall laying down more winter snowpack, the George Grant Chapter of Trout Unlimited offered the first of its winter programs, last week, to a large audience.

The theme was the Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area, a popular outdoor recreation area, with cross-country skiing and snowmobiling, as well as hunting, fishing, and other recreation, with areas on both sides of the Continental Divide.

Mt. Haggin WMA in autumn

Vanna Boccadori, a wildlife biologist for Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, told of the area’s history, starting with a chert quarry where Native Americans found rock suitable for making arrow and spear heads and cutting tools, and likely found excellent hunting in the area.

Starting in the 1860s, things changed, when gold was discovered in French Gulch, with sluice and placer mining that began a long series of environmental problems in the area.

Logging started in the 1880s, with large scale clear-cutting of timber, much of which was transported on a flume, with timber ending up in Butte mines and homes, and the new settlement in Anaconda. A second wave of logging started in 1906.

Much of the area was included in the beginnings of the National Forest system. Gifford Pinchot, the first head of the Forest Service, visited the area, finding that there was no forest left. He made a deal with the Anaconda Company, trading the area for Company forest holdings in the Bitterroot valley.

The Anaconda Company bought out a number of homesteads and started a sheep ranching operation that, under subsequent private owners, phased into cattle ranching. There was another wave of logging in the 1970s. With the help of the Nature Conservancy, the Forest Service and FWP then acquired the property, creating the 55,000 acre Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area. It has since grown to 70,000 acres.

Pedro Marques, environmental restoration manager

Pedro Marques is a Restorations Program Manager for the Big Hole Watershed Committee, and has been working on many degraded areas on the WMA, including smelting deposits, such as arsenic, sulphur dioxide, copper, antimony, lead, and cadmium. There was also environmental damage from logging, mining, and transportation operations.

There are many areas that were “past the ecological tipping point,” meaning that after clear-cut logging, followed by smelter contamination, some areas were totally degraded and eroded and incapable of recovery without intervention.

Restoration and remediation projects have been developed to mimic nature, to capture and hold sediment by building structures to slow and stop water, as well as restoring vegetation and controlling non-native weeds.

He concluded his presentation saying, “We have what works. Now we can scale it up into wider areas.”

Jim Olsen, FWP fisheries biologist for the Big Hole area, talked about efforts to save and restore native fish, such as westslope cutthroat trout and grayling on the WMA, particularly in the French Creek drainage.

The French Creek drainage is all on public land, either WMA or Forest Service, and has habitat that is good, or is improving after remediation, and already has some populations of native fish, plus pearl shell mussels, a unique fresh water mussel that needs native fish for propagation.

The restoration project has several major steps, including a fish barrier to prevent non-native fish from moving back into the watershed, then removing non-native trout, and, finally, restoring native fish.

It’s a multi-year project, with barrier construction, removing existing fish, and then, finally, restocking native cutthroat trout, grayling, mountain whitefish, sculpin and longnose dace. When restocking begins, sterile hatchery-raised cutthroat trout will also be introduced to kick-start the fishery.

Olsen concluded his presentation noting that in previous projects, some 67 miles of tributaries have completed restoration projects, and the French Creek project, with 40 miles of tributaries, will substantially increase the amount of streams with native fish populations.

The next TU program meeting will be on February 15 at the Butte Brewing conference room, and is free and open to the public. Also, the annual fundraising banquet will be at the Copper King Hotel on March 9.

It may be winter, but it’s time to get back into a fishing mode.

Montana Hunting Plans Draw Comments

FWP biologist Vanna Boccadori explaining changes in elk hunts.

With the 2017 hunting seasons basically over, a large group of local hunters gathered, last week, to learn what changes Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks is planning. It was a wide-ranging discussion of various topics ranging from elk management to deer pee.

Vanna Boccadori, the FWP big game biologist stationed in Butte, was the meeting’s moderator, though there was a big complement of other biologists from the area, as well as game wardens, and Mark Deleray, the new Region 3 Supervisor (more on him below).

Deer pee? Because of concerns regarding chronic wasting disease, FWP banned the sale of ungulate urine scents. FWP is now proposing to modify the ban to allow scents if urine sources have been certified to be CWD-free, with the Archery Trade Association the certifying agency. Based on comments, there are still potential complex issues.

Elk shoulder seasons were a hot topic. FWP is studying options to evaluate the elk shoulder seasons, currently limited to 43 hunting districts, and to revisit the issue every three years. There was extensive discussion of the shoulder seasons, especially concerning District 215, the district closest to Butte that offers a shoulder season.

Proposed changed to the annual youth deer season drew discussion. Currently, it’s a two-day season just before the general deer and elk season, and usually coincides with the annual Montana Education Association break. The proposal would make it a four-day season in years when the MEA break doesn’t coincide with the two days before the general season. It would also increase the age for participating youth to age 17 instead of age 15. In a show of hands, the sentiment among attendees seemed to be in favor of not making any changes.

Boccadori presented proposals for District 340, or the Highlands District, to allow harvest of either brow-tined bulls or antlerless elk on a general license, which she felt would be more effective in managing elk populations. She indicated that the underlying reason for the change is, “I’m trying to maximize hunter opportunity and sustainable harvest.”

Discussion on elk management returned repeatedly to the persisting dilemma of private landowners not allowing hunter access to their property, while often selling guided hunts for bull elk. This leads to increased pressure on neighboring public lands, resulting with elk migrating to private lands. At the same time, FWP is obligated to manage elk populations with goals set by the state legislature.

There was extensive discussion of mule deer management, especially a proposal to go to an either sex harvest in District 329, also known as the Horse Prairie District west of Dillon. Craig Fager, the biologist based in Dillon, defended the recommendations saying the deer are there and harvestable. Some people vigorously disagreed with that assessment.

Biologist Craig Fager pondering comments at meeting.

Fager commented on some of the complexities of mule deer management, concluding, “There’s a lot of moving parts in this.”

There was extensive discussion of habitat issues. In many previously productive mule deer areas, there has been significant conifer encroachment, crowding out the brushy browse habitat favored by mule deer. There seemed to be general agreement that where elk populations are high, it has been at the expense of mule deer.

There are no planned changes to wolf hunting regulations. Following a grumble about “too many wolves,” Boccadori responded, “You’ve got six months, dude. Get after it!”

For new Region 3 Supervisor, Mark Deleray, this round of winter meetings has been an opportunity to get to know biologists and game wardens in the Region, as well as to meet members of the public. He commented that the people at the Butte meeting seemed to be both well-informed and vocal in expressing opinions.

New FWP Region 3 Supervisor Mark Deleray

Deleray is a California native, and did graduate work at Montana State University. He spent the last 20 years as the Region 1 Fisheries Manager, based in Kalispell.

The entire proposed changes are available at the FWP website. FWP accepts public comments in person at public meetings, by mail, or online. The deadline for comments is 5 p.m., January 24, 2018. The FWP Commission will make final decisions on changes at its February 15, 2018 meeting.

Jack Atcheson – Hunter and Public Lands Champion

Jack Atcheson, hunter and public lands champion.

There’s a tradition on the popular CBS news program, Sunday Morning, that on the last Sunday of the year they do a “Hail and Farewell” segment, highlighting the passing of notable personalities during the year. The December 31 program highlighted a number of people, primarily from the entertainment industry, such as Mary Tyler Moore, Roger Moore, Mel Tillis, Glen Campbell, and Rose Marie, or the political world, including John Anderson, who ran as an independent for president in 1980, or in sports, boxer Jake LaMotta and football coach Ara Parseghian, and many others. As always, you don’t really appreciate the impact of this review of deaths in a year until you put them together into a long list.

If the program took a broader look at the “who’s who” of obituaries, they might have included a Butte man, Jack Atcheson, who died on December 27, at age 85.

What the people featured in CBS’s Hail and Farewell meant in the various worlds of entertainment, politics, and sports, Jack Atcheson was all that and more in the world of the outdoors, particularly big game hunting.

I’ve been reading outdoors magazines since I was a kid, starting when I’d check out outdoors magazines from my hometown library. A name that recurred again and again, especially in the context of big game hunting, was Jack Atcheson of Butte, Montana. When reading accounts of exotic big game hunts by the likes of Jack O’Connor or Jim Zumbo, and other famous writers, chances are the article would have a credit to Jack Atcheson for making arrangements for the hunt, and often would further indicate that trophies were sent to Atcheson Taxidermy of Butte.

As it happened, shortly after I transferred to the Butte Social Security Office in 1988, I saw a man sitting in the office waiting area. All our interviewers were tied up so I asked if I could help him. Sure enough, it was Jack Atcheson, and he had questions about Social Security to help with retirement planning. After I answered his questions I had more questions for him, as well as conversation regarding our shared interests in hunting and the outdoors. I remember advice he gave me. “Always have a camera with you. You never know when you might have the photo of a lifetime.” Also, he advised, regarding outdoors activity, “Go now, while you’re physically able,” a recurring theme in his two books, Hunting Adventures Worldwide and Real Hunting and Campfire Humor.

After serving in the Army during the Korean War, Jack came home to Butte and started a taxidermy business, and through contacts he developed with outfitters around the world he, with his wife Mary Claire, who had a travel agency, started making arrangements to book hunts around the world. In the process, he went hunting around the world, often to check out the services of outfitters. In short, over his many years in the business, he went virtually everywhere in the world, and the adventures he had, and the people he hunted with or met in the process of travel, could probably fill many books.

While Jack was a celebrity in the hunting world, he took much of it with humor. In a chat before a past Montana elk and deer season, Jack smiled and said, “There’s a lot of luck with trophy hunting. Usually it’s the guy stuck as camp cook that gets the biggest elk.”

We once met in a grocery store parking lot and Jack asked what I had going on. As it happened, the next day I was planning to go on a horseback trip, covering a conservation project of the Backcountry Horsemen. He chuckled a bit and said, “Be careful. I’m often asked ‘What’s the most dangerous animal you’ve encountered?’ I tell them it’s the horse. I’ve known several people who were killed by horses.”

Jack’s inscription when he autographed his first book to me in 1995 would make a good epitaph. “I wish I could do it all over again. Life is too short.”

Hail and farewell.